Contemplative Buddhisattva National Treasure No. 83
of Backche kingdom
one of three kingdoms called Backche, Koguryo and Silla
in the ancient history of Korea, was
founded on the basin of the "Han-
gang (river)" in the year
18 B.C. by the "King Onjo". Backche originally
started out as Mahan, one of 50 small kingdoms, and grew stronger
as it conquered areas surrounding Mahan. Backche Kingdom
develop- ed her brilliant culture through war and league
with Koguryo and Silla for 678 years before it collapsed
in A.D. 660.
Backche established the foundation of the ancient
nation in the King Koi in the middle of 3rd century,
and set up the government organization
and 16 pum) in the year of 27 of the King Koi. After
that, the King Kunchogo expanded the territory down
to the south Chollado
area and up to the north Hwang- haedo through the reinforcement of local ruling.
The King Munju moved the capital of
Backche to Ungjin
(Kongju) after the capital
of the "Backche" Hansong was occupied by Koguryo,
one of ancient three kingdoms in Korea peninsula, in
475. Thereafter, the "King Dongsong" formed
league with Silla and interchanged the culture with
"Namche", one of ancient Chinese nations,
and Backche established a firm foundation as a strong
nation in the
era of the King Munyong.
The King Seong of Backche moved the
capital to Sabi
(Puyo) for restoration
Backche Kingdom" and
royal authority in 538, and
changed the name of the country to Southern Puyo (Nampuyo).
The King Seong also set up a new central government
organization (16-official rank and 22-department)to
reinforce the royal authority and was prepared for the
war with Koguryo and Silla to expand the territory.
The King Euicha, the last king of Backche, ruled the kingdom
well at the beginning through the friendly relations
with Koguryo and Oye (Japan), established ruling systems,
but at the end of the King Euicha, Backche was conquered
by the allies of Silla and Tang of China in 660 because
of the hostility to Silla, the failure of diplomatic
policy and internal disunion.
Culture of Backche
Confucianism as of great importance in the middle of the
3rd century, established the educational organization
of Confucianism and doctoral system, and delivered "Confucianism"
to Japan. "Wangin" and "Achiggi" delivered Chinese Characters and the Analects
of Confucius to Japan in Hansong Era, "Danyangi"
and "Koanmu" were dispatched to Japan to influence
Japan's culture in King Munyong's time. A national history
book was written by "Doctor Koheung", and
Chinese characters and Chinese literature were used
and developed in King Kunchoko's time. In the King Chimryu,
Buddhism was delivered from Dongchin by "Marananta" in 384, and Buddhism spread out from Royal family
Royal family and peasants had their
own land when the nation was formed, and tax for the
land was collected differently according to the harvest.
Men over 15 years old were mobilized for national public
work, handicrafts were made by technicians and slaves
who belonged to the government. They made tiles and
clay ware, and they had technics of weaving and dyeing.
Especially Backche delivered the technics of industrial
arts to Japan. And Backche also traded with the Tang
Dynasty of China and Japan.